Standing alongside of the Jewish oriented theology of Jesus suffering an atoning death is the concept of Redemption. Redemption is a word used frequently during the Easter Season, yet the original meaning of the word seems to have been lost to history. The Greek speaking New Testament writers based the concept on the term, lytron, meaning ransom. This is a technical Greek term used for payment from a third person to release detainees, POW’s, or those who are enslaved. Our word, “Redemption”, is derived from the Latin redemptionem "a buying back or off, a releasing, a ransoming", noun of action from past-participle stem of redimere "to redeem, buy back”. This evolved to the from Old French redemcion (12c.) which, by the 14 c, developed into redemcioun, "deliverance from sin."
The Catholic Catechism presents a powerful overview of the concept of Redemption;
517: Christ's whole life is a mystery of redemption. Redemption comes to us above all through the blood of his cross, but this mystery is at work throughout Christ's entire life:already in his Incarnation through which by becoming poor he enriches us with his poverty; in his hidden life which by his submission atones for our disobedience; in his word which purifies its hearers; in his healings and exorcisms by which "he took our infirmities and bore our diseases"; and in his Resurrection by which he justifies us.
607: The desire to embrace his Father's plan of redeeming love inspired Jesus' whole life, for his redemptive passion was the very reason for his Incarnation. And so he asked, "And what shall I say? 'Father, save me from this hour'? No, for this purpose I have come to this hour." And again, "Shall I not drink the cup which the Father has given me?" From the cross, just before "It is finished", he said, "I thirst."
613: Christ's death is both the Paschal sacrifice that accomplishes the definitive redemption of men, through "the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world", and the sacrifice of the New Covenant, which restores man to communion with God by reconciling him to God through the "blood of the covenant, which was poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins".
616: It is love "to the end that confers on Christ's sacrifice its value as redemption and reparation, as atonement and satisfaction. He knew and loved us all when he offered his life. Now "the love of Christ controls us, because we are convinced that one has died for all; therefore, all have died”. No man, not even the holiest, was ever able to take on himself the sins of all men and offer himself as a sacrifice for all. The existence in Christ of the divine person of the Son, who at once surpasses and embraces all human persons, and constitutes himself as the Head of all mankind, makes possible his redemptive sacrifice for all.
618: The cross is the unique sacrifice of Christ, the "one mediator between God and men". But because in his incarnate divine person he has in some way united himself to every man, "the possibility of being made partners, in a way known to God, in the paschal mystery" is offered to all men. He calls his disciples to "take up [their] cross and follow [him]", for "Christ also suffered for [us], leaving [us] an example so that [we] should follow in his steps." In fact, Jesus desires to associate with his redeeming sacrifice those who were to be its first beneficiaries. This is achieved supremely in the case of his mother, who was associated more intimately than any other person in the mystery of his redemptive suffering.
622: The redemption won by Christ consists in this, that he came "to give his life as a ransom for many" (Mt 20:28), that is, he "loved [his own] to the end" (Jn 13:1), so that they might be "ransomed from the futile ways inherited from [their] fathers" (I Pt 1:18)
The foundational Christian belief has Jesus offering his life as ransom for us and our sins. Modern followers do not understand that the ransom payment was given to the power of sin. Some have embodied this power as the devil, but the New Testament writers saw sin as an alternate, or competing, power with the Kingdom of God. The death of Jesus broke the power of sin, and death, which held humankind from the Kingdom of God. Our estrangement from God is of our own making. Redemption is the means by which our Salvation takes place. Jesus gave us back our relationship God and gave us our intrinsic worth back in His redemptive act. In the plan of Salvation, the ransom which Jesus paid on the Cross redeemed each one of us and brings each of us into the unfolding plan of Salvation.