On Sunday 29 May, Pope Francis announced that he would create 21 new cardinals on 27 August 2022.
This will be done at a Papal Consistory, an event in which the Pope calls all of the College of Cardinals to a meeting.
While the 21 new cardinals are known before the Consistory, it is not until the Consistory that these new cardinals will officially be created a cardinal.
Most of these cardinals will become second-level cardinals called a Cardinal-Priest. Despite its name, it has nothing to do with being a priest, rather most of these cardinals will be bishops already. As a cardinal-priest, these cardinals will receive a titular church, which is a church in Rome that is assigned to a cardinal, although this cardinal-priest has no governance over the parish or church. Cardinal-deacons are the third-level and they receive a church in Rome called a deaconry, sometimes chapels part of a larger parish Church. Cardinal Bishops are the first-level cardinals and they receive one of the suburbicarian sees, which are diocese in the vicinity of Rome that include Ostia, reserved for the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Velletri-Segni, Porto-Santa Rufina, Frascati, Palestrina, Albano, and Sabina-Poggio Mirteto. Like the cardinal-priests and cardinal-deacons, these roles are only titular, as the governance is held by another ordinary.
These all originate from historic times. Cardinal-Deacons were the seven deacons of the Papal household that helped the Pope administer the seven districts of Rome. Cardinal-Priests were the wealthy donors or priests that owned or ran the House Churches before the legalization of Christianity in Rome. Eventually, the Cardinal-Deacons became the leaders of the deaconries in Rome. Cardinal-Priests became the head priests or pastors at the major parishes around Rome to guide the Pope. And, Cardinal-Bishops became the leaders of the dioceses around Rome to guide the pope. In 1059, these three types of cardinals were selected to elect the Pope from here on out.
Currently, the Cardinal-Deacons are the select priests that have reached the age of 80 or bishops and priests that are members of the Roman Curia (Central Government of Holy See/Catholic Church) or are Papal diplomats called nuncios. Cardinal-Priests are usually archbishops of very important archdioceses, manage dicasteries (departments) of the Roman Curia, or are Cardinal-Deacons that have been Cardinal-Deacons for ten years. And, Cardinal-Bishops are usually the most important cardinals. Of cardinals, most are Cardinal-Priests. It is important to note too that Eastern Catholic clergy created to the cardinate often do not have a titular position, or at least in the same way as their Roman Catholic counterparts.
Cardinals are the Princes of the Church, and are merely a created position, not like bishops, priests, and deacons. As a collective called the College of Cardinals, they get to elect the next pope in the papal conclave, but only those who are under 80 years of age since 1971 (rule made by Pope Paul VI).
Those who are eligible to vote are called Cardinal-Electors.
So, now that you understand cardinals, let us look
at who will be our next Princes of the Church:
Today's article will feature the first seven of these new princes, while two articles in the future will feature the next fourteen.
1. Archbishop Arthur Roche - Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments: At the young age of 72, the English-born British Prelate will become a Cardinal. Archbishop Arthur Roche is a Catholic School veteran all the way through as he went to primary school at a school called St. Joseph then went to St. John Fisher High School and Christleton Hall. In university, he went to Royal English College of Valladolid or St. Alban's College as it is also known, in Valladolid, Spain, in 1965, and obtained a Theology degree from the Comillas Pontifical University in Madrid. By 1975, he was ordained a priest in the Diocese of Leeds. He served as an assistant priest at a parish until he became the Bishop's private secretary in 1978, and then the Diocese's Vice-Chancellor in 1979. From 1982-1989, he served as a priest at a parish, and became the Financial Secretary of the Diocese in 1986. In 1989, he finally became a head parish priest, and in 1991, he earned a License in Theology from the Pontifical Gregorian University. He became the Spiritual Director at the Venerable English College in Rome, and would become a monsignor in 1996, following his election as General Secretary of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales. Archbishop Arthur Roche became an auxiliary bishop of Westminster in 2001, and a titular bishop of Rusticiana. In 2002, he became the Coadjutor Bishop of Leeds and then became the Bishop of Leeds in 2004. In 2012, he became the Secretary of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments (CDW), a congregation in the Roman Curia, and had his title elevated from a bishop to an archbishop. He also spent some time as a member of the Pontifical Council for Culture. Since 2021, he has been the Prefect for CDW, and is now the highest ranking English cleric. He is known for being for the restrictions on the Traditional Tridentine Latin Mass. He will become a Cardinal-Deacon.
2. Archbishop Lazzaro You Heung sik – Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy: South Korean born at the age of 70 and the first Korean to run a department at the Roman Curia, Archbishop Lazzaro You Heung sik will become a cardinal in August. Archbishop Lazzaro You Heung sik was born in the South Chungcheong Province, and became baptized at 16 years old. From there, his Catholic Faith began to flourish studying at the Catholic University of Korea in Seoul, and then he earned a degree in Dogmatic Theology from the Pontifical Lateran University in Rome. He was ordained a priest in the Diocese of Daejeon in 1979. He would work as assistant priest at the diocesan cathedral, director of a retreat house, and director of an education center. In 1994, he became a spiritual director and professor at the Cathollic University of Daejeon. In 2003, he was named Coadjutor Bishop of Daejeon. In 2005, he became the Bishop of Daejeon. Having served as the Bishop of the Diocese of Daejeon from 2005-2021, he became the Prefect of the Congregation for Clergy in 2021. He also has served as a member of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum, and has headed many efforts in the Catholic Bishops' Conference of Korea. He is known for his attempts to secure peaceful relations with North Korea, as well as his involvement in the Focolare Movement to spread unity across the greater Christian world. He will become a Cardinal-Deacon.
3. Archbishop Fernando Vérgez Alzaga, L.C. – President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and President of the Governorate for Vatican City State: The 77 year old Salamanca, Spain born Archbishop Fernando Vérgez Alzaga has been working in the Vatican and Roman Curia since 1972, and even before then as a student. In 1965, he had taken vows to become a Legion of Christ, and then in 1969, he was ordained priest in the Legion of Christ. He would go on to receive degrees in Theology and Philosophy from the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, and then earned an archivist diploma from the Vatican Secret Archives. He has served many roles in the Roman Curia, such as an assistant to the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life in 1972, and then in 1984, he would be moved to the Pontifical Council for the Laity. He also became the head of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See. It was in 2004 when he would really begin his period as head of various positions though, with being named the Head of the Internet Office for the Holy See. In 2008, he became Telecommunications Director of the Vatican City State, as well as Head of the Poste Vaticane. In 2013, he became the Secretary General of the Governorate of Vatican City State, and would be made a titular bishop of Villamagna in Proconsulari. And, on 8 September last year, Archbishop Fernando Vérgez Alzaga became an archbishop and on 1 October, officially became the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and President of the Governorate of Vatican City State, making him the current Head of Government (Prime Minister) for the Vatican City State. He will become a Cardinal-Deacon.
4. Archbishop Jean-Marc Aveline - Metropolitan Archbishop of Marseille (France): French-Algerian born 63 year old French Archbishop Jean-Marc Aveline has a very interesting life in the Church in France, having gone up through some of the most elite of education, such as at the inter-diocesan seminary in Avignon, to the Carmes Seminary at the Catholic University of Paris, and most recently at the University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne for a Licentiate in Theology, and Doctorate while at Sorbonne. A highly intelligent clergyman meant a bright career for Archbishop Jean-Marc Aveline. Having been ordained in the Archdiocese of Marseille in 1984, Archbishop Jean-Marc Aveline went on to found two schools, the Institut des sciences et de théologie des religions of Marseille (ISTR) and the Catholic Institute of the Mediterranean. In addition, he became the episcopal vicar for the Archdiocese for 1987-2007, and then became vicar general in 2007. From 1997-2007 he taught at the Faculty of Theology of the Catholic University of Lyon. He would be named as a consultant of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue in 2007, and would also head a similar department for the Episcopal Conference of France since 2017. In 2013, he became a titular bishop of Simidicca, and an auxiliary bishop of Marseille. In 2019, he became the Archbishop of Marseille. He will be created a Cardinal-Priest in 2022.
5. Bishop Peter Okpaleke - Bishop of Ekwulobia (Nigeria): 59 year old Nigerian-born Bishop Peter Okpaleke has been one on an interesting career path. He was ordained a priest in his native Diocese of Awka in 1990. Having studied theology from 1983-1992 at the Bigard Memorial Major Seminary, Bishop Peter Okpaleke became very well respected in his diocese serving as a university chaplain, diocesan priest, diocesan financial administrator, diocesan chancellor, and secretary and member of the diocesan boards. He would also go on to study canon law at the Pontifical University of the Holy Cross in Rome. In 2012, he was appointed to become the Bishop of Ahiara, and was consecrated in 2013. However, those in the diocese preferred a person of their own primary ethnic group becoming bishop and protested to get their wish. Pope Francis ordered them to accept Bishop Peter Okpaleke, and they did, but still with protest. Eventually, Bishop Peter Okpaleke resigned in 2018. In 2020, the Diocese of Ekwulobia was created, and Bishop Peter Okpaleke became the Bishop of Ekwulobia. He will be created a Cardinal-Priest in 2022.
6. Archbishop Leonardo Ulrich Steiner, O.F.M. - Metropolitan Archbishop of Manaus (Brazil): Archbishop Leonardo Ulrich Steiner is a 71 year old Brazilian Prelate who received Holy Orders in 1978, two years after becoming a vowed member of the Franciscans Minor. He has served in numerous dioceses around Brazil, and his cousin was a Cardinal as well, Cardinal Paulo Evaristo Arns, O.F.M., whom he received Holy Orders from. He received a masters and doctorate from the Pontifical University of Saint Anthony in Rome, and then would serve as a professor of theology there, as well as parish priest and pastor. When he moved back to Brazil, he served in the Archdiocese of Curitiba, at a parish as an assistant pastor, and then continued as a lecturer at the Bom Jesus Faculty of Philosophy there. He then became the Bishop Prelate of São Félix, a territorial prelature, in 2005, and then in 2011, he became a titular bishop of Tisiduo, and an auxiliary bishop of Brasilia. He became the Secretary General of National Conference of Catholic Bishops for Brazil in 2019, and then in 2020, he became the Archbishop of Manaus. He is known for coming out against President Bolsanaro's COVID denialism stance in a less controversial way, as well as being the President for the Special Episcopal Commission for the Amazon since 2022, and the Vice President of Ecclesial Conference of the Amazon Region. Thus, he appears to be in-line with the Vatican's COVID policies and knowledgeable on one of the key regions of focus, the Amazon. 2022 will see Archbishop Leonardo Ulrich Steiner become a Cardinal-Priest.
7. Archbishop Filipe Neri António Sebastião di Rosário Ferrão - Archbishop of Goa and Daman (India): The 69 year old Portuguese-India born Indian Prelate Archbishop Filipe Neri Ferrão earned Holy Orders in 1979, served immediately as a parochial vicar, and then as both the Prefect of Discipline at the Minor Seminary of Our Lady, Saligão-Pilerne, and the Director of the Vocation Commission for Diocesan Clergy. He earned a Licentiate Degree in Biblical Theology from the Pontifical Urban University in Rome in 1988, followed by a Licentiate Degree from International Institute Lumen Vitae in Brussels in catechetics and pastoral theology in 1991. When he came back to India, he served as the director of the Diocesan Centre for Lay Apostolate until 1994, as well as Convenor of the Team for Transfers of Priests from 1992-1997, Ecclesiastical Advisor to St. Luke's Medical Guild, Goa from 1992-1994, and the Episcopal Vicar for the North Zone of the Archdiocese of Goa and Daman from 1993-1994. He would make booklets and daily spiritual reflections for the Faithful. In 1994, he was made a Bishop, as an auxiliary bishop for the Archdiocese of Goa and Daman, as well as a titular bishop of Vanariona. In 2004, he was named the Archbishop of Goa and Daman, as well as the Patriarch of the East Indies, an honorary title that goes along with the Primate of the East. His talents in language exceed most others with fluency in Konkani, English, Portuguese, Italian, French and German, and he knows enough Marathi and Gujarati to celebrate these liturgies as well. He will be created a Cardinal-Priest in 2022.