Frequently, Protestants will say that Romans 10:4 supports the doctrine of faith alone. However, for anyone who is steeped in the Sacred Traditions of Jesus Christ which are the bedrock of the New Testament, the Teaching of Rom 10 is very clear and it has nothing to do with justification by faith alone.
1 Brethren, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved.
St. Paul, born of Jewish stock, still loves his family tree and wishes they might convert and be saved.
2 For I bear them record that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge.
He knows that they love God, but realizes that they don’t understand Him.
3 For they being ignorant of God’s righteousness,
What is this which he calls “God’s righteousness”? It is the grace of God which Jesus Christ pours out through the Sacraments. It is this grace which erases our sins and makes us “righteous” in a justification which does the things which the Law of Moses could not do.
Acts 13:39 And by him all that believe are justified from all things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses.
and going about to establish their own righteousness,
A Jew would establish his righteousness by keeping the Commandments.
Deuteronomy 6:25 And it shall be our righteousness, if we observe to do all these commandments before the Lord our God, as he hath commanded us.
have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God.
Jesus Christ established the Sacraments and pours out His grace upon those who believe in His promises.
4 For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth.
Therefore, this is a reference to the justification which occurs in the Sacraments. Not to faith alone. It compares the OT to the Sacraments of the NT. Christ is the end of the Law because it is in the Sacraments that we are saved, if we believe in Christ.
5 For Moses describeth the righteousness which is of the law, That the man which doeth those things shall live by them.
This tells you that the Law of Moses is still efficacious, for those who obey God.
6 But the righteousness which is of faith speaketh on this wise, Say not in thine heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? (that is, to bring Christ down from above:)
These two verses destroy the false doctrine of presumption of salvation.
Here in 6, St. Paul says not to judge yourself or anyone saved. For, in so doing, you are putting Christ down. You are usurping His Role as Judge of Mankind.
7 Or, Who shall descend into the deep? (that is, to bring up Christ again from the dead.)
Here, in 7, St. Paul tells you not to condemn any man to hell. For in so doing, you are usurping God’s Role. You are exalting yourself as though you have the power of life and death.
8 But what saith it? The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart: that is, the word of faith, which we preach;
9 That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved.
This is a reference to the Sacraments, specifically to Baptism.
Acts 22:16 And now why tarriest thou? arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord.
It is describing what we do in the Sacraments. We profess our faith in Christ and God pours into our hearts the grace of the Holy Spirit.
10 For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. 11 For the scripture saith, Whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed. 12 For there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek: for the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him.
There is no difference between the Jew and the Greek because those who hear the voice of God and believe will obey and do His works:
Hebrews 5:9 And being made perfect, he became the author of eternal salvation unto all them that obey him;
13 For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.
14 How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher?
That doesn’t say, “pick up the Bible and read for yourself”. That doesn’t say, “pass out bibles and figure it out for yourself.” That provides the Catholic Teaching which says that we learn our faith from our Priests. They are the ones who preach to us the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
15 And how shall they preach, except they be sent? as it is written, How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things! 16 But they have not all obeyed the gospel. For Esaias saith, Lord, who hath believed our report? 17 So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.
Faith comes from hearing. Not from reading the Bible. From hearing the Church which is the infallible Teaching of the Wisdom of God:
Ephesians 3:10 To the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places might be known by the church the manifold wisdom of God,
This is a clear Teaching of the authority of the Church, of the efficacy of the Sacraments and of the necessity of keeping Sacred Tradition. Nothing about faith alone.